By M. H. J. Finch
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Extra info for A Political Economy of Uruguay since 1870
Neither of these alternatives was acceptable to the dominant sectors of the economy by 1968. Inflation in 1967 exceeded 100 per cent for the first time, and the seriousness of the balance of payments position made renewed approaches to the IMF unavoidable. The stability of the capitalist class as a whole was threatened not only by the rapid rate of inflation but also by serious bank failures in 1965, as well as by the grounds well of trade union and student discontent and the early indications of Tupamaro guerrilla activity.
The political heirs to the patriciado, lacking a substantial economic basis for the exercise of power, were removed from government in 1876 by a military regime which proceeded to lay the institutional base for the capitalist transformation of the rural sector. 36 A POLITICAL ECONOMY OF URUGUAY SINCE 1870 This transformation was not achieved rapidly, since as we have seen in Chapter 1, it provoked the opposition of caudillo landowners who were reluctant to cede their authority to Montevideo. The urban ruling class, though still with some direct interests in the land, was fundamentally concerned with commerce and finance.
In comparison with the rest of Latin America, the demographic agestructure resulting from the very low rate of population growth is POPULATION AND SOCIETY 27 exceptional, and more closely resembles that of European populations. Data for 1970 indicates that Uruguay has the smallest proportion under fourteen of any Latin American population, and the highest proportion over sixty-five. 10 Only Argentina has a population whose age-structure is even remotely comparable. The peculiarity of Uruguay's population history and structure is mainly attributable to the fall in the crude birth rate.
A Political Economy of Uruguay since 1870 by M. H. J. Finch