By A. Daguerre
Studying contemporary coverage responses to social exclusion within the US, France, Denmark, the united kingdom, and on the european point because 1997, Daguerre argues that the advance of lively labour marketplace rules isn't the resolution and that the reforms are indicative of a shift in the direction of conditional welfare. The booklet relies on in-depth interviews with key coverage makers.
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Additional resources for Active Labour Market Policies and Welfare Reform: Europe and the US in Comparative Perspective
Firstly, I analyse the institutional weaknesses of social assistance programmes in the United States. Secondly, I describe the first wave of welfare reform in the 1990s and analyse the influence of Conservative and moralistic ideas in the design of TANF. Lastly, the role of policy communities composed of Republican experts and political appointees is examined in the period 2001-04. I also provide a brief description of the main provisions of the new legislation. The stigmatisation of welfare policies There is no comprehensive US welfare state in the European sense of the word with universal coverage of social risks such as the loss of employment, old age and poor health.
For Wilson, the underclass was composed of 'individuals who lack training and skills and either experience long-term unemployment or are not members of the labour force, individuals who are engaged in street crime and other forms of aberrant behaviour, and families that experience long spells of poverty and/or welfare dependency' (Wilson, 1987: 41). This diagnosis prompted the implementation of two policy responses. The first response was based on the Human Capital approach and emphasised the role of training and education in enabling single parents to acquire the necessary skills for getting decently paid jobs.
The prevalence of residual welfare principles justified the abolition of any universal entitlement to state help in the 1990s; instead, social citizenship rights are based on the ability and the will to participate in paid employment. Therefore US welfare reform under the Clinton and Bush administrations is not driven by a radical paradigm shift, but by a cyclical return to deep-rooted negative views about the poor and by a neo-liberal economic doctrine concerning the explanation of unemployment and poverty.
Active Labour Market Policies and Welfare Reform: Europe and the US in Comparative Perspective by A. Daguerre