By Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Russell used to be a prolific author, revolutionizing philosophy and doing wide paintings within the learn of good judgment. This, his first e-book on arithmetic, used to be initially released in 1897 and later rejected via the writer himself since it was once not able to help Einstein's paintings in physics. This evolution makes An Essay at the Foundations of Geometry worthy in knowing the development of Russell's philosophical considering. regardless of his rejection of it, Essays remains to be an excellent paintings in common sense and background, delivering readers with an evidence for a way Euclidean geometry was once changed through extra complicated kinds of math. British thinker and mathematician BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL (1872-1970) gained the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950. between his many works are Why it's not that i am a Christian (1927), energy: a brand new Social research (1938), and My Philosophical improvement (1959).

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To count type statements: count token statements and subtract any duplications of tokens of the same statement. To perform a count of type statements, the word processor would operate on different principles from those that it uses when 37 2 REFERENCE AND l'RU'rH VALUE it counts how many typographically different type sentences there are in the text, or in counting how many type sentences with different meanings there are in the text. g. ']~his toucan can't catch a can'), or because different things are said of different objects (''-fhis cat snores').

Or Lut not both). See Strawson 1952, eh. 3, pt I): 78-93, Ryle 1954: 114fT, Baker and Hacker 1984: 170-9, Newton-Smith 1985: 15-28. See for example Kneale 1962, eh. g. Keynes 1884 (or a latc version. See Strawson 1959: esp. g. two otherwise indistinguishable copies of David Copperfield side by side (two particulars). 1 for a difficulty. Moore 1903, ch. I, esp. paras 5-14: 5-21. See Flew (1979) 1983: 14,254. See for example ))cseartes (1636) 1912, pt IV; (J641) 1912, III, V; (1644) 1912, pt I, sees XIV-XV.

33 2 REFERENCE AND TRUTH VALUE (iii) Sentence ambiguity and synonymy Containing a token of an intrinsically ambiguous type word is a potent source of alnbiguity in sentences but containing an ambiguous word is neither necessary nor sufficient to make a sentence ambiguous. Example B 'This toucan can catch a can' supplies an example ora sentence which contains a word, viz. 'can', which is ambiguous but where the sentence is not thereby rendered ambiguous. rrhis is because it is quite clear which meaning each token of 'can' has.

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An essay on the foundations of geometry by Bertrand Russell


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